Costa Rica economy – Gran Logia Costa Rica http://granlogiacostarica.org/ Wed, 21 Sep 2022 23:41:54 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://granlogiacostarica.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/cropped-icon-1-32x32.png Costa Rica economy – Gran Logia Costa Rica http://granlogiacostarica.org/ 32 32 How climate change is catalyzing more migration in Central America https://granlogiacostarica.org/how-climate-change-is-catalyzing-more-migration-in-central-america/ Wed, 21 Sep 2022 16:57:48 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/how-climate-change-is-catalyzing-more-migration-in-central-america/

The northern part of Central America – Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador – is the other major source of migrants seeking opportunity and safety in the United States. Like Mexicans, they have long sought employment in the United States, although over the past decade an increasing number of people are traveling as families, and not just as single working-age men. The impending catastrophe of climate change is now exacerbating the region’s chronic struggles with poverty and insecurity.

USIP’s Mary Speck spoke with Sarah Bermeo, Professor of Public Policy and Political Science at Duke University, about how natural disasters interact with and intensify other root causes of migration in Central America.

Speck: How does climate change increase the pressure to emigrate from Central America? And which communities are most impacted?

Bermeo: Climate change is affecting migration from Central America in two main ways: increased storm intensity and changes in precipitation patterns that have negatively affected agricultural production. Two Category 4 hurricanes, Eta and Iota – among the strongest storms to ever hit the region – made landfall in November 2020, a year the International Red Cross estimates disasters displaced at least 1.5 million of Central Americans. Many houses and crops have been destroyed and food insecurity has increased sharply. Almost two years later, many families have not been able to return to normal. Climate change is leading to warming oceans, which means high-intensity storms are likely to become more frequent.

Central American farmers have experienced multiple droughts since 2014, causing crop losses of 70% or more in some harvests and often affecting consecutive growing seasons. There were also occasional periods of intense rains which inflicted severe crop damage. When crops fail, subsistence farmers cannot grow the food they need to feed their families, and those who farm for a living lose their livelihoods. Changes in precipitation patterns, including prolonged dry spells and periods of intense rainfall, will continue as the impacts of climate change intensify.

Storms and crop failures pushed already poor families even further into poverty. Droughts were likely a key factor in the sharp increase in family migration from Honduras and Guatemala to the United States in 2018 and 2019. Many of those who arrived in the United States during this period came from rural areas, including the highlands of Guatemala where indigenous communities make up a large part of the population. They left their farms because they could no longer feed their families if they stayed.

Dot: you have written that “the negative impacts of climate and violence are mutually reinforcing, increasing external migration”. Can you explain the relationship between rural food insecurity, urban violence and external migration?

Bermeo: Globally, most climate-related migration occurs within countries: people who can no longer support themselves at home migrate to a new home in their own country. In northern Central America, that’s not what we see. People displaced by climate change, often facing severe food insecurity, are resettling in southern Costa Rica or northern Mexico, Canada and the United States.

This appears to result from the lack of viable internal migration options. Gangs control many urban neighborhoods, making it difficult for people to move around. Homicide, gang recruitment, and extortion rates are high in urban areas, and criminals generally operate with impunity. When farmers are displaced by storms or can no longer produce enough to meet their basic needs, they must find new places to live. If they do not find suitable places internally, they will migrate abroad. Climate change forces people to leave their homes, then high levels of violence force them to leave their countries. These migrants then mingle with other migrants – those fleeing violence or seeking better economic opportunities – to create flows of migrants who leave for a variety of reasons that are not easy to disentangle.

Speck: Some studies show that households with more resources are more likely to leave, given the high cost of emigration. According to a investigation published by MIT academics in 2021 Central Americans spend $2.2 billion a year trying to migrate and hiring a smuggler to enter the US costs about $7,500, more than double the average per capita income in northern Central America. Is foreign aid likely to increase incomes and thus further stimulate emigration?

Bermeo: To understand the link between income and migration in a given situation, it is important to examine the underlying drivers of migration. When households or individuals save to migrate, it is likely that increasing their income (including through foreign aid) could help them achieve this result more quickly.

Those who migrate because of climate-related impacts are not in this situation. They migrate because their incomes and assets are diminishing. In some cases, families affected by climate change may decide to sell their few assets to finance migration rather than selling them to buy agricultural inputs or to meet their immediate needs. They are at a tipping point: migrate today or perhaps lose the financial ability to afford the migration. In many of these cases, people would prefer to stay, but they no longer have the option.

Foreign aid can reduce migration if it improves Central Americans’ expectations that they can support themselves without leaving their homes. At some point, there were people who could afford to migrate but chose not to. Climate-related shocks may cause them to reconsider this decision and leave. The sheer scale of the migration suggests that foreign aid is unlikely to make it worse: more than seven percent of the total population in some departments of Honduras and Guatemala have come to the US border traveling in family units in recent years. The total number of emigrants is even higher, as some do not arrive in the United States. These families travel with children in extremely harsh and dangerous conditions. Many would choose to avoid this trip if they had any hope of lasting results at home.

Speck: Central America suffers not only from poverty and violence, but also from weak governance. Surveys show that support for democratic institutions has declined over the past decade while perceptions of corruption are high. Given weak government institutions, how and where should the United States channel aid to increase the region’s resilience to climate change?

Bermeo: El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras score poorly on measures of corruption; in recent years it seems to be going in the wrong direction, with governments refusing to cooperate with international bodies that had been set up to help fight corruption. My strong recommendation would be that aid agencies consider channeling more of their aid directly to local groups, bypassing both country governments and international for-profit organizations.

Working directly with local groups achieves several goals. Local people understand both the needs of their communities and the challenges of implementation. The elimination of for-profit “intermediary” organizations allows a greater proportion of funding to be used directly for programming.

There is another consideration that is rarely discussed by foreign aid decision-makers: working directly with local communities helps build government capacity from scratch. In countries where corruption is high, governments are likely to view foreign aid “governance” programs with skepticism. When local people come together to make decisions and implement programs, they build community and leaders emerge even without programs that specifically target governance.

Speck: Are there any encouraging trends in the region? Or examples of local adaptations to climate change that show signs of providing the kind of hope for the future that might lessen the pressure to migrate?

Bermeo: There are promising opportunities for climate adaptation in the region, particularly in the area of ​​agriculture and smallholder farmers. The Water Smart Agriculture project that Catholic Relief Services piloted in the region is showing impressive initial results. Farmers receive information about soil quality and farming techniques so they can make decisions about their own farms that make them more resilient to climate change. The project encourages farmers to participate in all stages of the program and train other farmers.

Other promising techniques include early warning systems that allow farmers to adapt their crops or farming techniques to changing weather conditions. We have the data, but communicating it broadly and in real time remains a challenge. Building resilience to storms and improving disaster response capacity are also essential, but more challenging given the need for competent governance to implement them at scale.

Even with adaptations, climate change is likely to render some areas unviable. Displaced people will always need safer destinations within the country and legal pathways for external migration. Destination communities will need resources to manage the increased demand for services such as health care and education, and to alleviate short-term pressures on housing and infrastructure. Research shows that migrants become productive members of their new communities, contributing to the economy and paying taxes that help support government provision of infrastructure and services. Over time, these benefits are significant, but in the short term the adjustment costs are real and can be daunting for destinations receiving large numbers of migrants over a short period.

Central America’s relatively young population can make important economic contributions at home and abroad, but they need help to overcome the devastating effects of climate change. This will require a multi-pronged approach in the United States and Central America: locally-led adaptation, investment in resilient infrastructure, safer Central American cities to welcome migrants into the country, and access to legal migration pathways abroad. ‘foreign.

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Ecuador joins the World Economic Forum in the fight against plastic pollution https://granlogiacostarica.org/ecuador-joins-the-world-economic-forum-in-the-fight-against-plastic-pollution/ Mon, 19 Sep 2022 17:53:00 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/ecuador-joins-the-world-economic-forum-in-the-fight-against-plastic-pollution/

Spanish

  • Ecuador joins the World Economic Forum’s Global Plastics Action Partnership to propose national solutions for a circular plastics economy
  • Ecuador is the first Latin American country to join the partnership

Impact Meetings Ecuador has announced its decision to join a committed group of partner countries of the Global Plastic Action Partnership. The GPAP is a multi-stakeholder platform dedicated to translating commitments to reduce pollution and plastic waste into concrete actions. It aims to shape a more sustainable and inclusive world through the eradication of plastic pollution.

Ecuador’s association comes at a crucial time, just before the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) begins work in November to assess countries’ ambitions for a plastic pollution treaty. The 11 representatives of the INC office, including Ecuador’s Deputy Foreign Minister, Luis Vayas, will meet in Uruguay to begin negotiating a legally binding treaty.

“The Galapagos Islands remind us of a universal responsibility towards biodiversity and nature. We are delighted to see Ecuador’s leadership and look forward to our collaboration as we tackle this key global issue together,” said Børge Brende, President of the World Economic Forum.

“The Global Partnership for Plastics Action is pleased to support cross-government efforts and multi-stakeholder action in Ecuador at a pivotal time for the global plastic pollution agenda. With the amount of plastic waste produced globally poised to nearly triple by 2060, countries are taking increasingly action-oriented steps to tackle the problem,” said Kristin Hughes, director of the Global Plastics Action Partnership.

In line with its environmental leadership and cross-cutting policy of ecological transition, Ecuador will work with GPAP and other strategic allies to launch a national partnership to strengthen the country’s efforts to combat plastic waste pollution.

“We are aware of the triple environmental crisis facing the planet and we are committed to promoting actions to mitigate its effects. For the government of President Guillermo Lasso, taking care of the oceans and all ecosystems is essential, which is why we have expanded the “Hermandad” (Brotherhood) Marine Reserve of the Galápagos Islands,” said the Ecuadorian Minister of Foreign Affairs and of Human Mobility, Juan Carlos Holguín. “In addition, together with Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama, we have committed to the sustainable management of resources and have created the Eastern Tropical Pacific Marine Corridor (CMAR). The association of Ecuador with the GPAP is an immediate response and it will federate the efforts of different actors to propose solutions to plastic pollution.

The Minister of the Environment, Gustavo Manrique, highlighted Ecuador’s ecological transition policy and highlighted the decisive measures the country has already taken, including the law on single-use plastics, municipal directives, the law on the circular economy, refundable taxes on plastic bottles and programs such as “Zero Waste Galapagos”.

Additionally, together with Germany, Viet Nam and Ghana, Ecuador led the Ministerial Conference on Marine Litter and Plastic Pollution in Geneva, Switzerland in September 2021, after which the INC was established.

GPAP will support Ecuador, one of the most biodiverse countries in the world and home to the Galapagos Islands, in building its technical capacities, accessing global networks of knowledge and practices, and its efforts to convene the multi-stakeholder platforms needed to advance national and international goals. Nations currently implementing such partnerships include Ghana, Pakistan, Indonesia, Viet Nam and Nigeria, as well as local partnerships with the state of Maharashtra in India and Mexico City.

The goal of GPAP is to enable a circular economy framework for plastics, designed and implemented between public and business leaders, civil society, and the scientific and academic community, to reduce plastic pollution. It also includes strategic opportunities for funding, innovation and measurement.

The meetings bring together communities of purpose, which include business leaders, policy makers, international and civil society organizations, innovators and entrepreneurs. These stakeholders will use the meetings to advance their work, make concrete progress on the Sustainable Development Goals and build momentum towards key milestones in the months ahead, including COP27 and the 2023 World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in January. .

/WEF release. This material from the original organization/authors may be ad hoc in nature, edited for clarity, style and length. The views and opinions expressed are those of the author or authors. See in full here.

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WAPO: ‘Rodrigo Chaves is following in Trump’s footsteps in Costa Rica’ https://granlogiacostarica.org/wapo-rodrigo-chaves-is-following-in-trumps-footsteps-in-costa-rica/ Sat, 17 Sep 2022 12:56:35 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/wapo-rodrigo-chaves-is-following-in-trumps-footsteps-in-costa-rica/

QCOSTARICA – Ronny Rojas, a Costa Rican journalist, who works for Noticias Telemundo and is a professor at the City University of New York (CUNY) School of Journalism, published an opinion piece on the Washington Post on the President of Costa Rica Rodrigo Chaves , titled “Rodrigo Chaves sigue los pasos de Trump au Costa Rica” (Rodrigo Chaves follows in Trump’s footsteps in Costa Rica).

Costa Rican President Rodrigo Chaves. (Moises Castillo/AP)

Here is a translation and adaptation of the article.

The aroma of Donald Trump Costa Rica’s Casa Presidencial (Presidential House) is hard to hide. Since President Rodrigo Chaves came to power in the small Central American country in May, his character and style of government have been compared to that of the former US president.

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Perhaps the most obvious similarity is Chaves’ public confrontation with the Costa Rican press, particularly with the media who exposed him during the presidential campaign by revealing the accusations of sexual harassment Chaves faced while working. at the World Bank, which cost him his demotion. of his management position and a three-year salary freeze.

Before winning the election, Chaves had already announced that, like a “tsunami”, he would destroy two of the main media in the country: Canal 7 (Teletica Channel 7 television) and the newspaper La Nación.

In Costa Rica, they say there’s a long way between words and deeds, but that doesn’t seem to be the case with Chaves. Barely a month after assuming the presidency, his administration ordered the closure of Parque Viva, an event center of Grupo Nación, which brings significant revenue to the journalistic business.

Costa Rican journalists see in this attitude an attempt by the president to settle accounts with the media which publicly showed his failures.

He also called the media “rats” and personally points the finger at reporters in the gallery where he spends more than an hour every Wednesday in colorful press conferences broadcast live on the internet, a practice reminiscent of live trials. between Trump and the American press at the White House.

He asked the Ticos with a smile not to believe the press, “not to buy the smoke”, assuring that the only thing journalists want is to sow confusion. But he also assures that his government will defend press freedom “at all costs” and rejects criticism that there is no closed media in the country.

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Rodrigo Chaves doesn’t want Costa Ricans to believe the press and that may be because in recent weeks the press has reported how the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) – one of the strongest electoral institutions on the continent – has found evidence to presume that the Progress Party The Social Democratic Party (PPSD), which brought Chaves to power, used a “dark funding scheme”.

In June, the TSE sent a detailed report to the Public Prosecutor’s Office, which is investigating the case, in which it details that the campaign allegedly received money from companies, individuals and even foreign citizens without reporting its origin and far from public scrutiny.

Costa Rica is one of the strongest democracies in Latin America and one of the 10 countries with the greatest press freedom in the world. However, Chaves’ threats and confrontational style have already meant that the country is seen abroad on the same populist course and with an authoritarian course as other Central American nations like Nicaragua – where the newspaper’s headquarters La Prensa was taken over by the government of Daniel Ortega and dozens of journalists had to go into exile—or Guatemala, where the founder of the newspaper elPeriódico, José Rubén Zamora, has been under arrest since July, accused of money laundering. money and other charges, after the media reported the Attorney General for allegedly allying himself with President Alejandro Giammattei “to attack judges and lawyers involved in anti-corruption cases”.

And not to mention El Salvador, where President Nayib Bukele accuses El Faro, one of his main critics, of money laundering without proof.

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The press isn’t the only stone troubling Chaves. One of his first actions as president was to sign an executive order to remove the mandatory nature of COVID-19 vaccines, contrary to medical recommendations, although it was later shown not to be. had no power.

Along with his Minister of Health, he attacked the scientists of the National Vaccination Commission for refusing to withdraw the order to vaccinate children, adolescents, public and private employees, accusing them of “liking things abnormal”.

At the beginning of August, one of these specialists, Hugo Marín Piva, was expelled from the commission. Marín accused the government of being allied with anti-vaccine groups and pressuring the commission to comply with its orders without “the proper technical basis”.

Very similar to when Trump threatened to remove expert Anthony Fauci.

The problem is that, although the journalists are crying to the skies, it seems Costa Ricans love Chaves’ confrontational style and are embracing him in front of the critical press. Nearly eight out of 10 Costa Ricans consider his work to have been “good or very good”, a record figure, according to a survey by the University of Costa Rica, one of the most credible.

At least until July, a majority backed the style with which Chaves handled the media and viewed him as a firm president with leadership.

In this case, it could be that the effects of the pandemic on the Costa Rican economy, which recorded the highest unemployment rate in Central America in 2021, or the recent corruption scandals in public works contracts, which led to the arrest of six mayors, dozens of civil servants and the owners of the largest construction companies in the country fed up with the Ticos and fertilized the land where Chaves sowed his seed. These were his campaign promises: “Restore hope” to the unemployed and entrepreneurs and fight against corruption.

The obvious question is what will happen from now on. The president’s popularity will depend on what he can actually do to keep his promises. His party has barely reached 10 seats in Congress and, like it or not, that is where any structural change is handled, so he is at the mercy of what he can negotiate with the majority of the opposition.

The cost of living and the economy are the main concern of the people and despite a polarizing political campaign, the citizens continue to strongly support the democratic system that sustains the country.

Scholars say Chaves’ high popularity is not a “blank check” or a “citizen’s mandate” for his government to fail to meet democratic standards. Just as they support its president, at least for now, the Ticos also believe he should obey the law.

And although the show and the confrontation with the press did not end and complicated things for Chaves – on September 2 he dismissed his Minister of Communication without giving reasons, who then assured that the attacks on the press were a personal decision of the president and correspond to “open wounds” during the campaign; they can also generate a loyal fan base.

But it is to be expected that an authoritarian one-upmanship on his part will not be welcome in a vain country, which likes to be recognized in the world as a little corner of “pura vida”.

You can read the original, in Spanish, at Washingtonpost.com.

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3Pillar Global acquires Canadian software company Jonah Group https://granlogiacostarica.org/3pillar-global-acquires-canadian-software-company-jonah-group/ Tue, 13 Sep 2022 17:00:00 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/3pillar-global-acquires-canadian-software-company-jonah-group/

Innovative Product Development Partner Expands North American Engineering Presence and Expertise by Onboarding Over 160 New Team Members

FAIRFAX, Va., September 13, 2022 /CNW/ — 3 global pillarsa leading developer of breakthrough digital products, today announced that it is expanding its business through the acquisition of Canadasoftware engineering company, Jonas Group, which brings considerable experience in the financial services industry and is known for its high-quality engineering. With clients in automotive finance, insurance, wealth management and capital markets, Jonah Group further complements 3Pillar’s focus in banking, financial services and insurance. (BFSI).

This is the latest in a series of strategic acquisitions and hires by 3Pillar as part of its accelerated growth strategy. 3Pillar has also recently gained a stronger position in Latin America with the acquisition of ArizonaTiempo development and Costa RicaIsthmus Software as well as in Europe with the acquisition of Czech RepublicSoftware development based in Europe.

“Jonah Group has been providing high-end software engineering services to an impressive list of clients for over 20 years,” said David DeWolf, CEO of 3Pillar. “Bringing them and their 160 team members together under the 3Pillar umbrella means that we are now one team with shared strengths, values ​​and culture. Our combined capabilities and expanded presence in the BFSI industry as well as ‘at the heart of from Toronto finance and technology will allow us to better serve our customers for years to come. »

The acquisition of Jonah Group will strengthen 3Pillar’s growing global footprint and expand the 3Pillar team to more than 2,300 employees in nine countries. With global offices and delivery centers in the United States, Latin America, Europe and APAC, 3Pillar continues to provide high quality digital product development services over a continuous development cycle.

“This is a huge win for Jonah Group, our employees and, most importantly, our customers,” said Jeremy Chanco-founder, Jonas Group. “Over the past six months, we have been delighted to discover great alignment of values ​​with 3Pillar stretching across the organization, most importantly, a shared focus on empathy, humility and transparency in dealing with employees and customers. 3Pillar is the preeminent partner for building digital businesses, and we couldn’t have imagined a better next step for our organization.”

For more information on 3Pillar Global and its work creation software products for businesses undergoing digital transformation, visit www.3pillarglobal.com.

About 3Pillar Global
3Pillar Global develops breakthrough software products that power cutting-edge digital transformations and define the next generation of digital businesses. 3Pillar’s innovative product development solutions drive fast revenue, increase market share and drive customer growth. Leveraging the “product mindset,” 3Pillar delivers disruptive and transformative digital and software products to customers in every industry, from CARFAX and Fortune to PBS. Visit www.3pillarglobal.com for more information and career opportunities. To learn more about the product mindset, visit www.productmindset.com and pick up a copy of “The Product Mindset: Succeed in the Digital Economy by Changing the Way Your Organization Thinks,” by 3Pillar CEO David DeWolf and Vice President of User Experience/User Interface for the CoStar Group Jessica Hall.

About Jonas Group
Jonah Group Ltd (jonahgroup.com) is a leading software development company that provides best in class software solutions to some from Canada larger companies.
Founded in 2001, Jonah Group specializes in designing, building, implementing and managing custom software applications for businesses under pressure to scale. The company is known for its smart approach to developing and deploying digital solutions. Jonah’s proprietary software development methodology, Lightwave®, is a set of processes, recipes, tools, and best practices that help deliver software efficiently and with low risk, while providing their customers with a excellent experience. Jonah Group’s attitude towards customer goals and their full expression in digital products sets them apart from their competitors. Jonah has an impressive list of clients ranging from from Canada from blue-chip institutional investors and other leading financial institutions to some of the largest healthcare and health insurance providers. The company is headquartered in Toronto, Canada At the heart of from Toronto financial and technological sector.

3Pillar Global Media Contacts
Margaret Irons
[email protected]

BLASTmedia for 3Pillar Global
patrick murphy
[email protected]

SOURCE 3Pillar Global

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Medical tourism in Costa Rica is recovering from the pandemic https://granlogiacostarica.org/medical-tourism-in-costa-rica-is-recovering-from-the-pandemic/ Sun, 11 Sep 2022 20:31:37 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/medical-tourism-in-costa-rica-is-recovering-from-the-pandemic/

Adventure tourism and ecotourism continue to dominate as the country’s main incomes. However, Medical tourism took center stage, mainly after the pandemic.

Costa Rica is one of the top five countries with the highest number of visits by Americans seeking medical treatment. Data from the Central Bank of Costa Rica reveals that in 2019, medical tourism generated US$465 million.

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Regarding the most sought-after services, dental care is found with 42%, other surgeries in areas such as orthopedics, bariatric, cardiovascular, ophthalmology, oncology with 22%, preventive medicine (16%), plastic surgery and aesthetics (10%) and other medical expenses for pharmacy, rehabilitation, audiology, dermatology, physiotherapy at 10%.

The revenue figure generated by medical tourism is US$56 million in the first two quarters of the year. Currently, travel for health reasons accounts for 13.4% of all visits to the country, according to data from the Tourism Satellite Account of the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR).

According to data from the Costa Rican Health Chamber, more than 80% of visitors come from the United States and 10% from Canada. However, they are also increasingly reaching tourists from Central American and Caribbean countries.

Massimo Manzi, executive director of the Costa Rican Chamber of Health, said a greater recovery is expected during 2023:

“Attracting international patients is an economic activity which, since the 1970s, has generated significant foreign exchange earnings for the country. These revenues benefit a broad value chain that includes not only hospitals and clinics, but also airlines, hotels, restaurants, transport companies, tours, wellness activities and crafts” , Manzi said.

However, the country could increase the benefits of medical tourism through public policies that support initiatives already led by the health sector. “In this regard, we see very favorably the legislative initiative that is dealt with in file 21,140 “Law for the promotion and development of health tourism services in Costa Rica” which, thanks to the formation of an inter-institutional commission , could contribute precisely to the generation of this public policy so necessary for this economic activity to develop at levels closer to its potential”, commented Manzi.

Coordinated initiatives

Developing coordinated initiatives with health, tourism, foreign trade and economic authorities would allow the country to compete on equal terms with nations that for many years have made health tourism one of the main pillars of the tourism development policy.

resonance, coworking Costa Rica
At Resonance, we aspire to live in harmony with the natural world as a reflection of our gratitude for life. We co-create an inspired and integrative community committed to working, living and learning together. We resonate with this deep desire to belong in the hive and the desire to live the highest version of ourselves in service.

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AMP’s appeal to Panamanian sailors ends successfully https://granlogiacostarica.org/amps-appeal-to-panamanian-sailors-ends-successfully/ Fri, 09 Sep 2022 21:30:35 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/amps-appeal-to-panamanian-sailors-ends-successfully/

With the help of approximately 300 applicants, including officers, cadets and seafarers, the call for Panamanian sailors interested in boarding ended successfully, organized by the Maritime Authority of Panama (AMP ), through the Directorate General of Seafarers (DGGM), in a joint effort with the main international shipping company in the field of general cargo in Colombia, the shipping company NAVESCO, SA

This call, according to what was indicated by the shipping company according to its requirements, was mainly addressed to First Officers (Deck and Engine), Chief Engineer, AB, Fitter, Cook, having previous experience, however of other positions present at the time of the appointment, were also interviewed.

The administrator of the Maritime Authority of Panama, Noriel Arauz, and the deputy administrator of the AMP, in charge, Elvia Bustavino, welcomed the participants, who went from the first hours to the premises of the General Directorate of seafarers, in the PanCanal Plaza building, Albrook.

The Director of the DGGM, Captain Juan Maltez, indicated that he was very pleased with the large turnout, as it is a sign of the interest of Panamanian sailors to embark and perform duties on board, which will have a positive impact on their families. and it will stimulate the national economy by attracting new foreign currency; in turn, this brings us closer to the objective set in this administration, that of creating mechanisms to facilitate the hiring of Panamanian sailors who must work on board ships, in this case general and bulk cargo.

The director general of the shipping company NAVESCO, Guillermo Solano, accompanied by the director of the operations department, Norman Jimenez Espinel, were in charge of interviewing the personnel for the expeditions.

Source: Panama Maritime Authority

Director Solano said his visit reinforces the bond created with the AMP, through an agreement reached in March 2020 and that he is satisfied with the professionalism and competence shown by the Panamanian sailors hired on board. their ships, being at this day about forty of them. , sailing in their fleet, a figure they want to increase, which is why they asked for this call.

The President of the Panamanian Association of Naval Officers (APOM), Captain Alberto Herrera, and the Attorney of the Association, Captain Aurelio Dutari, were also present, as well as the Secretary General and the National Director of Employment of the Ministry of Labor and Labor. development (MITRADEL), Winston Ivan Sanchez Aparicio and Alfredo Mitre, respectively, who supported the work and reiterated the message to Panamanian sailors, that in addition to technical knowledge, there is an urgent need to strengthen English language proficiency as as the official language of the maritime industry for safety, business and labor purposes.

The visit of the senior management of the shipping company NAVESCO in Panama, includes a visit to the International Maritime University of Panama (UMIP) and the University of Columbus, in order to interact with the teaching staff and cadets, to learn find out more about the directors, students, teaching staff, as well as the training provided in these institutions of higher education.
NAVESCO is an international company founded in 1980, dedicated to international shipping and cabotage of solid bulk such as cement, lime, salt, fertilizers, coal, sugar and general cargo such as steel and pipes.

Its activity is carried out mainly on the American continent, in particular in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and Central America, both on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the area of ​​​​operations includes ports in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil , Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Panama, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico and the United States, for which it uses two (2) vessel sizes: 8,000 DWT and 14,000 DWT, it has twelve (12) vessels, nine (9) of which are owned and the others chartered long-term by English, Dutch and German shipowners.
Source: Panama Maritime Authority

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Temus Ready to Support Business and Public Sector Transformation to Shape Singapore’s Digital Future | Taiwan News https://granlogiacostarica.org/temus-ready-to-support-business-and-public-sector-transformation-to-shape-singapores-digital-future-taiwan-news/ Thu, 08 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/temus-ready-to-support-business-and-public-sector-transformation-to-shape-singapores-digital-future-taiwan-news/

Along with the growth of Singapore’s digital footprint, Temus aims to grow its workforce of 200 people fivefold over the next three years.

SINGAPORE – Media OutReach – September 8, 2022 – Temus was established in April 2021 by Temasek, in partnership with global digital services company UST, to accelerate the digital transformation of leading public sector companies and agencies in Singapore and beyond.

Today, Temus counts some of the nation’s most forward-looking government agencies and large corporations among its clients. They cover a range of industries, including financial services and insurance, healthcare, education, consumer goods, telecommunications, infrastructure, energy and waste management, among others.

To meet the digital aspirations of its growing customer base, Temus’ workforce has grown to approximately 200 professionals in less than 18 months and is expected to grow fivefold over the next three years. The company has attracted a strong talent pool experienced in strategy, design, architecture, technology, data and artificial intelligence.

“Temus’ growth momentum is a testament to our unique proposition of forging long-term partnerships with our customers while keeping ‘value creation’ at the heart of helping shape their digital future,” said KC Yeoh, President and CEO, Temus. “We will build on this promising start to accelerate the growth of Singapore’s digital talent pool and create distinct digital capabilities for our customers – in parallel with the country’s Smart Nation aspirations.”

“Temus was born in a generation-spanning crisis, at a time when organizations accelerated their investments in digital to thrive,” said Srijay Ghosh, Founding Member and Chief Revenue Officer, Temus. “Experts predict that by the end of this year, more than half of the global economy will be digitally powered. Imagine what these digital transformations can do to improve lives, increase productivity and grow the economy. Temus was founded for these reasons and more. We remain committed to unlocking economic and societal value through holistic transformation.”

Developing digital talent: helping locals without tech training or experience to join Singapore’s digital workforce

Temus announced an accelerated “hire, place and train” program, called Step IT Up x Temus, to expand digital opportunities and expand the local digital talent pool for Singapore. Applicants without prior training and experience in coding or software programming will be given priority admission to the program.

Step IT Up was first introduced in 2014 by Temus strategic partner UST to create IT career opportunities for minority and disadvantaged groups in the United States. Since then, the program has taken place in Mexico, Poland, Australia, Costa Rica and Israel. Around 87% of graduates have secured digital and technology jobs in leading global companies, and 90% of them have stayed for at least two years. Notably, none of these trainees had a background in technology.

Now available in Singapore, around 400 people are expected to benefit from Step IT Up x Temus by 2025. Applicants will be offered full training sponsorship, financial stipend and full-time employment upon completion of their training.

“When Temus was founded, it was as much about building capabilities and creating value as it was about organically developing digital talent. People and talent are at the heart of any transformation and close to the purpose of Temus and at the heart of what we do, how we do it,” said Srijay. “We are proud to launch Step IT Up x Temus. As our candidates digitally transform, so do we – and the clients we serve. I hope more people will join us and be the change.”

Applications for the first batch of trainees will close on October 24, 2022 and training will begin on November 28, 2022. Interested candidates are invited to apply for the program at www.stepitup.temus.com.

Developing digital capabilities: Temus makes its first acquisition

Temus today announced the completion of its first acquisition, Dreamcloud, an award-winning Singapore-based systems integrator. Founded in 2011, Dreamcloud was one of the pioneers in the low-code space. They became OutSystems’ first partner in Southeast Asia in 2014 and now have one of the largest OutSystems delivery teams in Singapore.

The integration of Dreamcloud capabilities will strengthen Temus’ application development practice and complement its technology modernization capabilities, to help customers quickly develop, deploy and scale digital solutions.

“We are excited about this milestone as there is a strong alignment between the two organizations in terms of culture and purpose. Dreamcloud’s low-code, high-speed application development capabilities synergize with Temus’ strategy. aimed at building a strong application development practice, which will enable us to take a broader view of our customers’ digital transformation initiatives and deliver more holistic solutions,” said Daniel Lim, Managing Director, Dreamcloud. “Temus’ full support gives us the ability to deepen our engagements with our global network of more than 30 customers and continue to deliver cutting-edge digital transformation solutions to them.”

“Organizations of all sizes and in all industries are transforming the way they do business in the digital age –– speed, agility and simplicity are at the heart of successful transformations,” said KC. “As Temus grows, we will unlock even more value for our customers by catalyzing digital transformation holistically, for economic and societal impact.”

Hashtag: #Temus

About Temus

Temus was established by Temasek in partnership with UST, to provide digital transformation solutions to the private and public sectors as we aspire to be a strategic partner in realizing the Government of Singapore’s Smart Nation vision. We are headquartered in Singapore and have around 200 employees across a wide range of disciplines in strategy, design, architecture, technology, data and AI. For more information, please visit www.temus.com.

About Temasek

Temasek is an investment company with a net portfolio value of S$403 billion ($297 billion, €268 billion, £227 billion, RMB 1.89 billion) as of March 31, 2022. Based in Singapore, it has 12 offices in 8 countries around the world.

Temasek’s goal “Thus every generation prospers” guides him to make a difference for current and future generations. The Temasek Charter defines its three roles as an investor, institution and steward, and shapes its philosophy to do well, do well and do good. Sustainability is at the heart of everything Temasek does. It is committed to catalyzing solutions to global challenges and activating capital – financial, human, social and natural – to create a better and more inclusive world for all.

For more information about Temasek, please visit Social media icon www.temasek.com.sg.

About the UST

For over 22 years, UST has worked with the best companies in the world to achieve real impact through transformation. Powered by technology, inspired by people and driven by our purpose, we partner with our customers from conception to operation. Using our agile approach, we identify their key challenges and craft disruptive solutions that bring their vision to life. With deep domain expertise and a scalable philosophy, we embed innovation and agility into our clients’ organizations, delivering measurable value and lasting change across industries and across the globe. Together, with over 30,000 employees in 30 countries, we are building for unlimited impact, touching billions of lives in the process. Visit us atSocial media icon www.ust.com.

]]> Workplace Ecosystems is the real opportunity to attract… https://granlogiacostarica.org/workplace-ecosystems-is-the-real-opportunity-to-attract/ Sun, 04 Sep 2022 16:05:12 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/workplace-ecosystems-is-the-real-opportunity-to-attract/

Costa Rica published, last July, the regulation of law 10,008 or “Law to attract teleworkers and international service providers“, known as the “Digital Nomads Act“. With that, according to projections from real estate consultancies, the doors have been opened for a robust market. In what ways can different sectors take advantage of the opportunities of this potential impact?

Álvaro Cortés, an expert in the field, sees the key in forming work ecosystems across the country. “From our point of view, the nomads represent a huge opportunity: a kind of foreign direct investment capsule, but decentralized in people. Instead of talking about possible benefits for hotels, offices, homes, and stores as isolated sectors, the digital nomad market will be attracted to Costa Rica as long as strong connections are made between each sector and they form, through their synergies, an ecosystem”, he assured.

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In 2020, Cushman & Wakefield’s Future of Workplace Experience per Square Foot™ report described how digitalization – accelerated by the pandemic – has blurred the lines between work, life and play, to the point that 73% of remote employees around the world wanted remote work policies to be expanded to balance office, home and third-party locations. These estimates are now coming to fruition, and several countries, including Costa Rica, are articulating measures to attract this vast market.

The National Chamber of Tourism estimates that each person could generate more than $23,000 per semester for the economy if they came to work in the country with their family under this modality.

“Remote workers are looking for a variety of places and experiences in the world that offer comfort, functionality and well-being. In this sense, we have observed, on the one hand, how the Digital Nomads law is already part of the conversation as a talent attraction and retention strategy. Forward-thinking companies may see this regulation as a benefit for remote workers. On the other hand, the pioneering players in the real estate sector are not only reviewing their economic models, but also preparing themselves with flexible and innovative legal, financial and technological approaches to be able to meet the particular requirements of the market they are going to encounter. receive,” Cortés added.

Work ecosystems: the role of each real estate sector

Experts point out that the development of working ecosystems can occur in any geographic area of ​​Costa Rica that has the right mix of tourist attractions, access to cutting-edge technology, and communities around people’s interests. specific hobbies.

“A fundamental factor for the real estate sector to articulate under the modality of the ecosystem is that it forgets the “machote”. Each player’s business model should provide for flexible, perhaps short-term, contracts for spaces where people can live, work and play. For this, leveraging technology with international payment platforms or solutions like Airbnb will be essential. Each owner must design their space as a service, under a non-traditional structure. Thus, we anticipate that the legal and accounting configurations will expand and impact other laws and regulations in the future; and in favor of attracting digital nomads,” Cortés said.

Office sector

As people shift to balance office, home, and third places, the office will continue to be a fundamental driver of culture, learning, and personal life. Plug and play workspaces in interesting places with all the tools: screens, ergonomic furniture, high-speed internet, among others, will be more competitive.

Hotel sector

For this sector, the strategy of attracting digital nomads can represent an interesting component of post-pandemic recovery. The hotels that will succeed will be those that have the capacity to attract this floating population that thinks not only of pleasure and amusement, but also of medium-term housing and the place of work: a hybrid in the manner of a corporate hotel, with differentiated equipment for this market.

Nomads

Housing sector

The housing sector should generate more openness to digital platforms, legal advice for medium-term contracts and accounting to prepare for non-traditional payment methods. For example, landlords who own a real estate portfolio can offer different in-country mobility options for digital nomads under a membership system, as an alternative to the typical housing rental contract.

“As always, the recommendation is to seek real estate, legal and financial advisors who accompany you with the knowledge and vision to act quickly and adapt to the new type of demand that digital nomads will generate,” Cortés concluded.

resonance, coworking Costa Rica
At Resonance, we aspire to live in harmony with the natural world as a reflection of our gratitude for life. We co-create an inspired and integrative community committed to working, living and learning together. We resonate with this deep desire to belong in the hive and the desire to live the highest version of ourselves in service.

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Nicaraguan flight puts strain on Costa Rica’s asylum system https://granlogiacostarica.org/nicaraguan-flight-puts-strain-on-costa-ricas-asylum-system/ Fri, 02 Sep 2022 21:32:33 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/nicaraguan-flight-puts-strain-on-costa-ricas-asylum-system/

Comment

SAN JOSE, Costa Rica — After four years of trying to pursue his studies in Nicaragua, Elthon Rivera has finally come to the same conclusion as thousands of his compatriots. The government closed his university, his director told him he was going into exile and warned that the police were also coming for Rivera.

Rivera inspected the various safe houses he used after his arrest in 2018 and found that there was no one left who had sheltered him. “The only option is to go to Costa Rica, which is the closest I have and where I have the most contacts,” he said. He snuck out of Nicaragua along a trail over a mountain in February and quickly caught a bus to San Jose.

Rivera immediately applied for asylum. The Costa Rican government gave him an appointment to formalize his request – in 2030.

Since the summer of 2021, when Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega locked up dozens of political opponents ahead of presidential elections in November, Nicaraguans have been seeking asylum in Costa Rica at the highest level since the Nicaraguan political crisis erupted in April 2018.

The exodus of Nicaraguans fleeing political repression has rocked neighboring Costa Rica’s asylum system under the weight of claims that stretch even beyond the 1980s, when civil wars ravaged Central America.

Asylum seekers now represent 4% of the population of Costa Rica. Although it has only 5 million citizens, Costa Rica is second only to the United States, Germany and Mexico in the number of asylum applications it received last year. according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

Costa Rican authorities now confirm over 200,000 pending applications and another 50,000 people are waiting for their appointment to make an official application. Nicaraguans represent nearly nine out of 10 candidates.

Asylum seekers are adding pressure to President Rodrigo Chaves’ new administration trying to revive an economy hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic.

“It’s been an incredible increase,” said Allan Rodríguez, deputy director of Costa Rica’s immigration agency, which also oversees the asylum system. “It tested the capacity of the administration. It made us reinvent ourselves not only in the hosting process, but also in how to solve this problem.

Rodríguez said the system has been strengthened in terms of its ability to accept asylum applications – the UN refugee agency has hired 50 people to help it – but remaining challenges include resolving cases quickly. and the integration of asylum seekers into Costa Rican society.

Rivera, 28, was in his final year of medical school at Nicaragua’s largest public university and had no particular interest in politics when protests erupted in April 2018 in response to changes to the social security system. . Police brutalized elderly people who took to the streets, so university students came out in support of pensioners.

Rivera made his rounds at a hospital the next day and saw injured students pouring in. On the second day of the protests, the police beat him and threw him in a dirty cell for six hours before releasing him. The arrest made him a leader among other medical students, which ultimately got him expelled.

He then enrolled in a private university as a political science major because it had no medical school and was missing a few classes to complete his degree when Ortega’s government shut down. the school and a number of other private universities in February.

Even with his asylum nomination eight years away, he said, “I’ve stayed calm about it because I know there are a lot of Nicaraguans here and Costa Rica is a very small country.”

Xaviera Molina, 27, has already been granted asylum because she left Nicaragua during one of the first waves in July 2018.

Molina, a marketing major, was a single mother at the time in her second year of college. She had never been involved in activism, but when students expanded the protest against Ortega’s government, she got involved, first distributing food, then helping to provide medical care to students. wounded.

“I was basically a nurse by accident,” Molina said.

The government has stepped up its crackdown on protests, mounting an operation in July 2018 to clear barricades protesters had erected around resistance neighborhoods across Nicaragua. Molina went into hiding and then decided she had to leave the country.

Molina crossed the border into Costa Rica, applied for asylum and was granted it last October. She stayed a year and a half without seeing her daughter who had stayed with her parents in Nicaragua.

She said the process was slow, but she was able to work, open her own catering business and bring her daughter to Costa Rica.

“I know people who have been here for four years like me and they still haven’t accepted that they have to stay,” Molina said. “They still haven’t bought a bed because they feel like any moment they’re going to go back.”

Last March, US Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas met with officials in Costa Rica. The Biden administration was interested in seeing Costa Rica and Mexico, two countries with relatively robust asylum systems, continue to take in as many asylum seekers as possible.

In his State of the Union address that month, Biden said, “We are securing commitments and supporting partners in South and Central America to welcome more refugees and secure their own borders.

The U.S. government has donated nearly $49 million to international organizations and nongovernmental organizations for humanitarian assistance to asylum seekers and vulnerable migrants in Costa Rica between 2017 and 2021.

At the Summit of the Americas in Los Angeles in June, Costa Rica said it planned to renew a special protection category it had created for citizens of Nicaragua, Cuba and Venezuela whose initial asylum claims had been refused. The reasoning was that it was not safe to send them back to their country.

Diego Pérez, spokesperson for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Costa Rica, said that with the COVID-19 pandemic, Costa Rica’s asylum system no longer has “the same capacity to absorption or integration (of asylum seekers), including in the labor market.”

Gabriela Nuñez, Costa Rican director of the American refugee support organization HIAS, notes that before the Nicaraguan crisis, Costa Rica used to receive around 5,000 asylum applications a year. Now the country receives more than that in a month.

“There is an urgency in terms of how many people are seeking access to the territory, the process and finally how many are finally recognized,” Nuñez said.

Now, some fear that the years-long wait for a nomination will cause more Nicaraguans to turn north – to Mexico or the United States – than at any point in the political crisis of more than four years from their country.

As of August this year, 6,921 Nicaraguans have sought asylum in Mexico – often a stopover on the US border – more than double the number in 2021.

In the first 10 months of fiscal year 2022, U.S. border agents encountered Nicaraguans 134,000 times, up from more than 50,000 the previous year.

For the most part, however, Costa Rica remains the first choice for Nicaraguans seeking safety, due to its proximity, familiarity and possible family ties.

Still, it can be a difficult transition. Costa Rica is more expensive. Nicaraguans forced to flee quickly cannot take much with them; professional certifications are not transferable; it takes time to determine in which year children should enter a different education system.

Three months after applying for asylum, applicants can start working legally. But many said some employers did not recognize the government-issued card identifying them as asylum seekers.

Rivera tries to make the most of it. He founded an organization called Bridges for Nicaraguan Students, which aims to help exiled students find ways to continue their education.

Soon, Rivera will travel to Romania to resume his medical studies, but he does not plan to stop his political activism.

Leaving Nicaragua, Rivera remembers thinking, “I’m going to bother them more there, keep talking there, keep raising my voice there.”

Sherman reported from Mexico. AP video journalist Berny Araya in San Jose contributed to this report.

]]> National parks of Costa Rica: understanding their importance: https://granlogiacostarica.org/national-parks-of-costa-rica-understanding-their-importance/ Wed, 31 Aug 2022 21:44:55 +0000 https://granlogiacostarica.org/national-parks-of-costa-rica-understanding-their-importance/

Wallace Stegner, American novelist and environmentalist, rightly said, “National parks are the best idea we’ve ever had.

I recently watched a documentary called “Our Great National Parks”. I was very inspired and moved by it. But it also made me think, what if there were no national parks in the world?

The benefits of national parks go well beyond biodiversity conservation. Humans also benefit from it in different ways. With an increase in species extinction, plastic pollution of the oceans, deforestation, industrialization, mining and poaching, it has become essential to focus our efforts on the conservation of fragile ecosystems and flora and fauna. And national parks are a great way to do it!

What are national parks?

The Oxford Dictionary defines a national park as “a scenic or historically significant area of ​​countryside protected by the federal government for the enjoyment of the general public or the preservation of wildlife”. Britannica describes it as “an area set aside by a national government for the preservation of the natural environment”.

According to the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), there are more than 6,500 national parks in the world. Today, 15% of the emerged lands and 8% of the oceans are protected. It demonstrates the commitment of governments of all countries and continents to protect the extraordinary wildlife, unique landscapes and majestic forests of our world.

National Parks in Costa Rica

Costa Rica is home to 5% of the species found in the world, despite making up only 0.03% of the earth’s surface. As incredible as it may seem, Costa Rica once struggled with increasing deforestation and development in the early 20th century. Recognizing the detrimental effects of deforestation on biodiversity and the environment, Costa Rica has begun to reverse deforestation. The expansion of national parks took place rapidly in the 1970s.

Costa Rica is now proud to have 30 national parks to its credit. Today, more than 25% of the territory of Costa Rica is marked for conservation. One of the highest ratios in the world!

List of national parks in Costa Rica

Why are national parks important?

What makes national parks so important? Let’s dig deeper into the importance and significance of national parks.

Biodiversity conservation

National parks play a very important role in the conservation of biodiversity by protecting large areas of wilderness. A small change in the ecosystem can lead to large and unpredictable effects on biodiversity. Therefore, it becomes essential to contain natural habitats and provide safe havens for flora and fauna to thrive.

Costa Rica aims to protect more than 200 animals on its endangered species list through its national parks and other protected areas.

Preservation of natural resources

National parks contain a wealth of natural resources like minerals, timber, thermal water, medicines, etc. that many industries would be interested in exploiting for profit. National parks are protected areas, which means that they are the least affected by human activities.

National parks are also a source of renewable energy in the form of solar, hydroelectric, wind and thermal energy.[powerwindenergyandthermalenergy[powerwindenergyandthermalenergy

Environmental Protection

The vital role of national parks in environmental protection cannot be compromised. Rainforests store carbon dioxide, thereby reducing carbon in the environment and minimizing the carbon footprint generated by humans. About 15% of carbon stores are in national parks and protected areas.

National parks act as a buffer against extreme weather events and help control the climate. They also help to mitigate the impact of natural disasters by protecting against avalanches, landslides, erosion and flooding in forests through soil stabilization. Coral reefs and coastal wetlands in marine national parks protect against hurricanes, typhoons and tsunamis.

Economic value

National parks have economic value to national and local economies. Costa Rica is taking advantage of the growing demand for tourists visiting these national parks in the form of entry fees. National parks contribute nearly $2 billion to the Costa Rican economy. Many tourists who visit Costa Rica visit at least one national park during their visit. An impressive 122,465 tourists visited Costa Rica’s national parks between December 22, 2021 and January 2, 2022.

Local economies near national parks benefit from job creation and increased tourist spending on hotels, local shops, guides, restaurants, tours, etc. It also benefits from the protection of rural land for agriculture that would otherwise be developed.

Education and awareness

National parks are a great way to educate visitors and raise awareness. Visiting national parks encourages conservation efforts at the individual level. Knowledgeable tour guides and educational materials can inspire a tourist to start participating in conservation.

Each National Park in Costa Rica contains extensive information about the location, its history, conservation efforts, and much more. Some parks also offer guided tours where the guides explain the process or the importance of a particular species in the environment.

Health Benefits

25% of all our medicines come from rainforests and scientists are still discovering new medical advances.

In addition, national parks play an important role in improving the physical and mental well-being of individuals. Visiting national parks often involves walking and hiking on designated nature trails. It helps you reconnect with nature, improves lung function, increases vitamin D levels and boosts immunity.

Connecting with nature reduces stress, anxiety, depression and psychological disorders and improves cognitive abilities. Nature can heal your soul and the fresh air helps clear the mind.

Conclusion

The next time you visit a national park in Costa Rica, be grateful for its existence, immerse yourself in the surroundings and take the time to read all the information given there. Finally, leave nothing but footprints behind!

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